Also refer terms and definitions from ‘Core Good Practice Guide’.
Active Participant: a participant who is either a climber, abseiler, belayer or spotter.
Adventure Games: an activity which is not identifiable as a low element or high element activity, but which require spotting to protect a participant if they fall. Activities that do not require spotting are ‘games’.
Artificial surface(s): a man-made structure. Also called ‘artificial structures’ and [may] include but is not limited to portable climbing/abseiling walls, climbing gyms, challenge course elements, fixed climbing/abseiling or other towers, buildings and bridges.
Assisted belay (also known as ‘dynamic belay’ and ‘team belay’): belay system operated by at least one person who is not the climber.
Auto belay: a specialized belay device that operates automatically and removes the need for a belayer.
Belay System: The means by which the climber or abseiler is protected from an uncontrolled fall or descent.
Belayer: A person that operates the belay system.
Bouldering: A form of climbing activity, limited in height and for which fall safety can be achieved by the provision of an impact absorbing system, by a spotter providing control of a fall or by a combination of these measures.
Carabiner: (refer connector).
Climber: the person who is protected by spotting or a belay system.
Competence: ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve expected results.
Competencies: the plural of competence. Having competence in more than one ability.
Competent leader/participant/person/assessor: someone who has the competence to perform specific functions.
Connector(s): a metal device used to link components together. A connector may be:
- Non-locking: a connector that cannot be locked to prevent it opening.
- Self closing: a connector that automatically closes.
- Locking: a connector that can be manually locked and unlocked [without a tool] to reduce the possibility of it opening.
- Tool locked: a device that requires a tool to manually lock and unlock. A maillon is an example of a tool locked connector.
- Auto-locking: a connector that will automatically lock to prevent it from opening and requires two or more deliberate actions to unlock.
Contact rescue: a rescue requiring an activity leader to manoeuvre to the persons actual location to physically assist them.
Collective belay: a fall from height safety system that operates without a person intervening or operating. For example, soft-fall or a pool of water in a fall zone, guardrail, fence etc.
Continuous belay: belay system that enables climbers to progress from one activity system element to the next and that does not require climbers to undo or change the connection to the belay system.
Dynamic belay: refer assisted belay.
Dynamic rope: a specially constructed kernmantle rope that is somewhat elastic under load. The elastic ‘stretch’ under load is what makes the rope ‘dynamic’. (Also see static rope.)
Element: a temporary, mobile or permanent physical structure where a person requires a system to them protected from an uncontrolled fall or descent.
Fall height: The vertical distance between the climber’s or abseiler’s lowest body element and the surface beneath.
Fall factor: is the ratio of the height of a fall (h) (measured before the rope or lanyard begins to stretch) and the rope or lanyard length available to absorb the energy of the fall (L). It is used as a representation of the severity of a fall when arrested by a belay system. It is calculated by (h) divided by (L).
Fall zone: The surface that can be hit by a climber or abseiler falling.
Flash flooding: is flooding in a localised area with a rapid onset, usually as the result of relatively short intense bursts of rainfall.
Flying fox: a means of travel along a sloping rope or cable by attaching to it using a free moving pully and being propelled by gravity.
Haul system: [to be completed].
High element: (also known as high ropes) is any element or series of elements where the fall height means fall safety requires a belay system using harnesses and specialist safety equipment or other established methods or systems.
Interlocking device: a belay system using two lanyards that have interconnected carabiners, so that when one carabiner is locked it automatically leads to unlocking the other one and vice-versa.
Level 1, 2 or 3: describes the type of supervision provided to participants. The level meaning is:
- Level 1 – where a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part of the activity is able to physically intervene immediately. (Aligns with level 1 in Australian Standard AS 2316.2.2:2016 and direct supervision in the Core GPG).
- Level 2 – where a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part of the activity is able to visually see the participant(s) and verbally intervene immediately. (Aligns with level 2 in Australian Standard AS 2316.2.2:2016 and direct supervision in the Core GPG).
- Level 3 – where a nominated person responsible for supervising others during all or part of the activity is in the vicinity and able to respond promptly to provide assistance when called upon. (Aligns with level 3 in Australian Standard AS 2316.2.2:2016 and indirect supervision in the Core GPG).
Level of supervision: a category system that indicates the type of supervision provided to participants. (Refer Level 1, 2 or 3 for the categories used in this GPG.)
Low element (also known as low ropes or obstacle courses): any element or series of elements where the fall height means fall safety can be achieved by spotting, using an impact absorbing system or by a combination of these measures.
Low obstacle(s): a temporary, mobile or permanent physical structure where a person does not require a system to them protected from an uncontrolled fall or descent. (Also refer low element.)
Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS): is the magnitude of a load that may permanently distort or damage equipment but not cause it to break. (Refer appendix 3 – equipment load ratings).
Natural surface(s): the geologic structure and flora that forms a cliff or steep face.
Non-actively participating: a participant that is waiting to but is not currently doing the activity.
Responsible person: a competent person who is able to complete delegated elements or tasks during an activity that does not require the activity-specific competence of a activity leader.
Safety Factor: the ratio between the Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) and Safe Working Load (SWL) to provide a safety margin. It is expressed as a ratio, example 8:1. (Refer appendix 3 – equipment load ratings).
Safe Working Load (SWL): is the magnitude of load that does not permanently distort, weaken, damage or break equipment and includes a safety margin. (Refer appendix 3 – equipment load ratings).
Self-belay (also known as static belay): belay system that is operated by the climber.
Self closing: a connector that automatically closes.
Self locking: (see connectors – auto-locking).
Slackline: a type of element formed by a length of flat webbing that is tensioned between two anchors.
Soft-fall: an impact-absorbing surface.
Spotter(s): a person or persons who are spotting.
Spotting: a support process provided by a person, or persons, who offer physical protection of the head and upper body of a person should they fall.
Stated Strength: the magnitude of load that is either the Minimum Breaking Strength (MBS) or Safe Working Load (SWL) marked on equipment or listed in manufacturer’s literature. (Refer Appendix 3 – equipment load ratings).
Static belay: see self-belay.
Static rope: a specially constructed low stretch kernmantle rope, that has low elongation under load. The low elongation or ‘stretch’ under load is what makes the rope ‘static’. (Also see dynamic rope.)
Team belay: a type of assisted belay. Refer assisted belay.
Temporary element: an element that does not remain in place no longer than consecutive seven days.
Tool locked: a device that requires a tool to manually lock and unlock. A maillon is an example of a tool locked connector.
Waiting areas: a location in which to wait prior to undertaking the activity, where it is reasonable for a person to not be required to use equipment to protect them from a fall from height.